CROKER,Robert ( クロッカー ロバート , CROKER,Robert )
Academic Title
Area of specialization

Gender and diversity in Japan.
Research methods in sociology, particularly fieldwork research methods and qualitative research approaches.

Academic societies

Anthropology of Japan in Japan (AJJ)
Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT)

Community services

Nagoya City Primary School Twilight School Nanzan University volunteer program organizer (2009 to 2015)
Seminar Director, Thailand Mukdahan Province Teacher Training program(2000)
Teacher trainer, CANHELP THAILAND(1998〜1999)

No. of books/academic articles
総数 total number (19)
著書数 books (1)
学術論文数 articles (19)

Grad. School
Date of Completion
名古屋大学大学院国際開発研究科国際開発専攻 未設定  2002年11月  修了 
Degree name
Title of Thesis
   Conferring the Degree
Date of Acquisition
修士 Masters of Linguistics (TESOL)    Macquarie University Department of Linguistics Linguistics  2004年10月 
博士 Ph.D. (International Development)  A Learner-Centred Approach to Teaching English as a Foreign Language in Rural Thai Junior High Schools  Nagoya University Graduate School of International Development  2002年12月 
修士 Masters of Arts (International Development)    Nagoya University  1997年03月 
学士 Bachelor of Economics    Sydney University Economics Political Economy  1988年12月 
Long or Short
   Term research
Research Topic
長期研究  comparative sociology 

概要(Abstract) Focusing upon the life course, gender and diversity, comparing Japan with other countries in Asia, Europe, and North and South America 

長期研究  anthropology of Japan 

概要(Abstract) As I teach fieldwork research methods and Japanese contemporary culture classes, I am interested in how anthropological research is conducted in Japan.
I also take Japanese students to do fieldwork in Malaysia and Thailand, in policy studies. 

長期研究  qualitative research methods 

概要(Abstract) I am particularly interested in understanding how different qualitative research data creation methods, such as observations, think-alouds, interviews and focus groups, and journals and diaries, are used in research. I'm also interested in using stimuli in interviews to create richer, stronger data. 

長期研究  mixed methods research 

概要(Abstract) Understanding how qualitative and quantitative research methods can be used together, in research about sociology, anthropology, and applied linguistics. 

Title of the books
Form of Book
Request No
出版機関名 Publishing organization,判型 Book Size,頁数 No. of pp.,発行年月(日) Date
2009  Qualitative Research in Applied Linguistics: A Practical Introduction  共編著   
Palgrave Macmillan  , A5  , 231  , 2009/07   


備考(Remarks) A practical introduction to using qualitative research in applied linguistics research. 

2003  Oral Communication 2  共著   
Screenplay  , B5  , 144  , 2003/03   

概要(Abstract) Oral communication textbook based on using movies in the classroom to motivate and instruct students 

備考(Remarks) Officially approved Mombukagakusho textbook for second-year high school oral communication classes 

Title of the articles
Request No
掲載誌名 Journal name,出版機関名 Publishing organization,巻/号 Vol./no.,頁数 Page nos.,発行年月(日) Date
2023  オンライン留学についての提言(TIPS)―テクノロジー,教員,教育方法,学生の4つの局面から―  共著   
Japanese Language Education in Europe 26: The Proceedings of the 25th Japanese Language Symposium in Europe  , pp. 563-568  , 2023/06   



2022  Implementation of Online Study Abroad in Japan: Technology, Instructors, Pedagogy, and Student Dimensions  共著   
南山大学外国人留学生別科紀要  , 南山大学外国語教育センター  , 6  , pp. 1-20  , 2023/03   

概要(Abstract) The purpose of this paper is to understand the experiences of Japanese language instructors who taught online Japanese language classes to students at a private university language center in central Japan during the 2022 COVID-19 pandemic. The instructors were all native speakers of Japanese, and the students were from the Americas, Europe, and Asia. This case study focuses on one semester of teaching in early 2022; by then, most of the instructors had almost two years’ experience teaching online. Seventeen instructors completed a 44-item online questionnaire in Japanese, and the data were analyzed using descriptive quantitative and thematic qualitative approaches. In this paper, the questionnaire data are arranged into four dimensions: Technology, Instructors, Pedagogy, and Students (TIPS). The section on each dimension concludes with suggestions for making online teaching and learning more effective for instructors and students. This paper will be of interest to language instructors who have or who are teaching online, to language instructors who send their students to study abroad in Japan, and to researchers documenting how education institutions responded to the COVID-19 pandemic. 


2021  新型コロナウイルスが日本に居住する外国人に与える影響とその課題  共著   
コロナの影響と政策ー社会・経済・環境の観点からー  , 創成社  , 2022/03   

概要(Abstract) 2020 年 3 月、COVID-19 が日本で初めて感染者が確認されたとき、日本に暮らすすべての人が大きな影響を受けた。入国禁止や航空便の不足により帰国ができず、日本に留らざるを得ない人もいた。日本に暮らす誰もが直面する問題を経験することとなる中で、外国人居住者は、雇用、経済的生活困窮、居住環境、社会的なつながり、情報へのアクセス、在留資格制度、メンタルヘルス、医療、教育の 9 つの分野で、日本人と異なる経験をすることになった。日本政府や地方自治
13 体は外国人居住者が抱える問題に対して支援の手を差し伸べ、必要に応じて NPO
14 による援助もあった。しかし、外国人居住者の中にはこのサポートネットから抜
15 け落ちてしまったり、サポートネットの規模や強度が不十分であるケースがあっ
16 たりしたが、このような支援のおかげで、外国人居住者の多くが助けられた。 


2020  Study Abroad Online: Possible, and worth doing, even in a pandemic  共著   
Bulletin of the Center for Japanese Studies  , Nanzan University  , 4  , 51-66  , 2021/03   

概要(Abstract) As with the rest of the world, the Center for Japanese Studies (CJS) at Nanzan University was suddenly confronted with the corona virus pandemic in early 2020. At the beginning of March, the difficult decision was made to stop on-campus classes, request students to return home immediately, and change to online classes for the rest of the 2020 Spring Semester. This paper records how the Japanese language instructors faced this situation: the eight issues explored in preparatory FD workshops, how classes were taught for the remainder of the 2020 Spring Semester, and ten challenges faced and lessons learned for the 2020 Fall Semester and present 2021 Spring Semester. We hope that this paper will be of use to other language instructors, and help them reflect about their experiences in 2020. 


2019  Study Abroad Students Joining a Local Church: Language Communities in a Local Japanese Social Network  共著   
外国人留学生別科紀要  , 南山大学  , 3  , 1-24  , 2019/03/31   

概要(Abstract) 教会、寺院、モスク、シナゴーグなどを中心とした、宗教や信仰を基盤とするソー シャルネットワークは、日本に限らず世界中に存在する。このようなネットワーク の中には閉鎖的なものもあるが、開放的で新しい信者を歓迎するものもある。日本 に滞在し日本語を学ぶ短期留学生の多くは、地域のソーシャルネットワークに参加 することを望みながらも困難を感じている。留学生にとって、宗教や信仰を基盤と した地域のソーシャルネットワークに入ることは、個人の信仰を維持し、深めるこ とができるだけでなく、目標言語を使用することのできる既存のソーシャルネット ワークに入る機会を得るものである。 本稿は、アメリカ及びスウェーデンから日本に短期留学している 2 名の女子学生 が、地元のプロテスタント教会に参加した経験を報告するものである。1 名の学生 は 7 日間で 17 時間、もう 1 名は 15 時間を、教会及び教会外で、青年グループ、音 楽バンド、また聖書討論会のメンバーと共に過ごしている。 留学研究ではまだ先行研究が少ない分野ではあるが、本研究は信仰を基盤とした ソーシャルネットワークが、この学生達に対し教室外で日本語を使用する貴重な機 会を提供していることを示している。そしてこの結果は、Goldoni (2013)の効果的 な留学経験に関する4つの結論、つまり1) 居心地のよい環境で目標言語を十分に 使うことができること; 2) 目標言語話者のネットワークにアクセスできること; 3) 文化に所属し、文化をうちから見る機会を得ること; そして4) 趣味や個人的な興味 を共有できること、とも一致するものである。  


2019  Intercultural social networks: A study of service learning and its impact on Japanese-foreign student learning  未設定   
Bulletin of the Center for Japanese Studies  , Nanzan University  , 2  , 15-27  , 2019/03   

概要(Abstract) International service learning is fast becoming a popular pedagogical approach to enhance global citizenship among participating students. Through this type of experiential education, this approach gives students the opportunity to engage with local students and hone their intercultural communication skills. This paper seeks to shed light on the impact participation in an international service learning program had on two student groups at a Japanese university. Specifically, it elucidates the students’ reflections on the formation of intercultural social networks. In the final part of the paper, five central concepts of social network analysis are used to explore this case of service learning: density; homophily; diffusion; structural holes; and betweenness. 

備考(Remarks) This paper was supported by the following Nanzan University grant:

2018  Exploring Japanese high school English teacher perspectives on active learning  共著   
Academia (Literature and Language)  , Nanzan University  , 104  , x-y  , 2018/06   

概要(Abstract) Periodically, the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) revises the courses of study for each level of education – primary, junior high school, and high school. From 2022, the revised course of study for high schools will take effect. One of its significant features is the adoption of an active learning approach. This present study investigates how Japanese high school teachers of English feel about active learning and what training they would like to receive. A 51-item online questionnaire was answered by 65 teachers from one prefecture in central Japan. Almost all of these teachers had positive attitudes towards an active learning approach, felt that they would be able to implement that approach in their classrooms, and wanted to learn more about active learning. Two problems were the lack of computers, screens and projectors in classrooms, and teachers not being sure how to assess active learning tasks and activities.  


2017  Local university students supporting Japanese students’ fieldwork in Thailand: Learning opportunities, motivation changes, and identity shifts  共著   
Academia (Social Sciences)  , Nanzan University  , 14  , 63-85  , 2018/01   

On some short-term university study abroad programs, host universities provide local students to help visiting students with their language learning and fieldwork. Previous research focused on the learning processes and outcomes of visiting students; however, this case study seeks to understand the experiences of the local students. In the summer of 2017, 25 local Thai students assisted 24 visiting Japanese university students to learn Thai and conduct fieldwork in northeast Thailand. At the end of the program, the Thai students completed an extensive written questionnaire. Results indicate that the local Thai students improved their Japanese language proficiency and learned a great deal about Japanese culture. This lead to some identity shifts, as they began to adopt Japanese ways of being, doing, and thinking. Greater language proficiency and a deeper cultural understanding improved their confidence and motivation to interact in Japanese, and spurred some to want to study harder. The local Thai students did become much more interested in travelling in Japan, but only moderately more interested in studying and living there. Both dispatching and hosting universities have an obligation to consider how to maximize learning opportunities not only for visiting students but also for local students as well. 


2017  Active learning in the Japanese high school English classroom: How far have teachers already come?   共著   
Academia (Literature and Language)  , Nanzan University  , 103  , 63-77  , 2018/01   

概要(Abstract) Under the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) new course of study, Japanese high school teachers will adopt an active learning approach from 2022. To help teacher educators and trainers prepare Japanese high school teachers for this shift, this study sought to understand how familiar Japanese high school teachers of English are with active learning and what active learning tasks and activities they are already doing. A 51-item online questionnaire was answered by 65 teachers from one mostly rural prefecture in central Japan. Many of the teachers felt that they understood the principles of active learning, and were already doing active learning tasks and activities in their classes. 


2017  Positionality: Three perspectives on the experiences of Japanese students on a short-term study abroad program in Thailand  単著   
Academia (Literature and Language)  , Nanzan University  , 103  , 193-220  , 2018/01   

概要(Abstract) This study aimed to uncover both the particular experiences and to explore the specific aspects within those experiences that 24 student participants in the 2017 Nanzan Asia Program (herein: Thai NAP) deemed most meaningful during their four-week sojourn in Thailand. To that end, three different researchers applied their own lens using three different qualitative methods to analyze written reflections taken from a post-program survey that was given to these students. Accordingly, one researcher used a top-down approach applying Bennett’s (1993) Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS). Another researcher used a bottom-up, grounded theory approach that led to the development of four themes that played an important role in students’ experiences. Finally, a third researcher used a bottom-up holistic approach to identify five main steps that the students passed through during the program. Findings from each researcher are discussed within their respective sections and a final group analysis is then offered. It was concluded that using a reflexive approach can provide a deeper understanding of the ways that students constructed meaning during Thai NAP. Suggestions for future research are shared at the end of the paper. 


掲載雑誌名等 Publishing Magazine,発行所 Publisher,巻/号 Vol./no.,頁数 Page nos.,発行年月(日) Date
2011  Writing Successful Qualitative Research Proposals  presentation  単著 
Vientiane, Laos  , National University of Laos   


備考(Remarks) A presentation to graduate students of the Faculty of Letters at the National University of Laos, to help them write successful, focused qualitative research proposals. Particularly, I focused upon helping participants develop practical research topics. 

2011  Ready for Action (Research)! Where do I start?  presentation  単著 
Nagoya  , English Teachers Japan - Aichi (ETJ-Aichi)   


備考(Remarks) A workshop for teachers working in elementary schools, junior and senior high schools, language schools, and universities, to introduce the basic principles and practices of action and classroom research. 

2011  The Art and Craft of Action Research  presentation  単著 
Nagoya  , Nagoya University of Foreign Studies   


備考(Remarks) A workshop for junior and senior high school teachers working in Japanese schools who are doing or who are considering doing action research in their classrooms. 

2011  The Craft of Writing Research Questions  presentation  単著 
Vientiane, Laos  , National University of Laos   


備考(Remarks) A presentation to graduate students of the Faculty of Letters at the National University of Laos, to help them practical feasible research questions. 

2011  Qualitative Research in Education: Data Creation Methods  presentation  単著 
Izmir, Turkey  , Izmir University   


備考(Remarks) A one-day workshop for 500 Turkish education researchers, including faculty, graduate students, and invited researchers, to introduce the wide variety of ways to create data in qualitative research. 

2011  Qualitative Research in Education: Crafting Purposeful Research Designs  presentation  単著 
Izmir, Turkey  , Institute of Educational Sciences, Dokuz Eylul University   


備考(Remarks) A presentation to 500 Turkish researchers, providing an introduction and overview of qualitative research methods in education. 

2011  Qualitative Research in Education  presentation  単著 
Izmir, Turkey  , Turkish Air Force Language School   


備考(Remarks) A presentation and workshop for language teachers at the Turkish Air Force Language School in Izmir, Turkey, explaining how qualitative research methods can help language teachers understand their classrooms. 

2011  Research Design for Language Classroom Research  presentation  単著 
Vientiane, Laos  , National University of Laos   


備考(Remarks) A presentation to graduate students of the Faculty of Letters at the National University of Laos, to create appropriate research designs, matching their research questions with ways to create qualitative data. 

2010  Qualitative Research in Applied Linguistics  presentation  その他 
Penang, Malaysia  , Universiti Sains Malaysia   

概要(Abstract) Postgraduate Lecture Series to applied linguistics students at USM 


2010  Let's begin action research in your classroom!  presentation  単著 
Nagoya  , Nanzan University   


備考(Remarks) A MEXT presentation for relicensing junior and senior high school teachers. This was a one-day workshop to introduce teachers to action research, explaining the action research cycle, helping them focus on appropriate research topics, and illustrating different ways to create data in the language classroom. 

Title or Name of Session
発表学会等名称 Name, etc. of the conference at which the presentation is to be given, 主催者名称 Organizer, 掲載雑誌名等 Publishing Magazine,発行所 Publisher,巻/号 Vol./no.,頁数 Page nos.
2018  Peace begins from friendship: Short-term exchange students’ Japanese language social networks in Japan  共同  2018/08/04 
ヴェネツィア2018日本語教育国際研究大会  , ICJLE 2018   

概要(Abstract) Our torn, modern world desperately needs peace. Yet true peace is more than the absence of conflict; rather, it is the presence within each person of a deep sense of cultural understanding and social empathy. Short-term language exchange programs offer unique opportunities for young people to foster these qualities.
Yet who do short-term exchange students living in dormitories spend time with? What do they talk about, and what do they do together? Little detailed research has been conducted in Japan to discover the answers to these questions. This study seeks to fill this gap, by investigating the Japanese language social networks that short-term exchange students developed over one semester when studying Japanese at a private university in central Japan. Twenty volunteer participants from ten countries kept a detailed diary for seven days in their tenth week of their stay in Japan in the 2016 fall semester. In this diary, participants wrote where, with whom, for how long, and about what they had spoken in Japanese outside the language classroom each day. Participants also chose which of these interactions had been most useful for their language learning and which person had helped them the most each day. Later, participants were interviewed and completed a short questionnaire.
Results showed that by the tenth week of their stay, these twenty short-term exchange students had created Japanese language social networks made up of both Japanese people and foreign students. These social networks provided significant cultural, emotional, and social support, and facilitated the development of language skills and cultural understanding. Female exchange students had twice as many opportunities to speak Japanese as male students; non-English speaking students spoke far more Japanese than native English speakers; intermediate level speakers spoke the most Japanese; and students staying in dormitories spoke about the same amount of Japanese as students doing homestays. Further analysis revealed two main types of Japanese language social networks: small, intense, concentrated social networks and larger, more dispersed social networks. Each of these social networks afforded very different opportunities to interact. 

備考(Remarks) This presentation was generously funded by the following Nanzan grant: Pache II-B (travel grant). 

2018  LGBTQIA Perspectives  共同  2018/04/07 
Creating Connections 2018  , Nagoya International School   

概要(Abstract) This session is a discussion, exploring our understandings of the following two questions:
1. What are some of the issues that we (as LGBTQIA students, and friends, parents, teachers, counsellors and supporters of LGBTQIA students) are facing at our schools?
2. How can we as allies support each other to create supportive, understanding, and accepting school environments?
These questions will be discussed in small groups, with a whole sharing session after we explore each question. 


2017  International student dormitories: Target language oasis or desert?  単独  2018/02/28 
Professional Development Series  , School of Languages, Literacies and Translation, Universiti Sains Malaysia   

概要(Abstract) During short-term study abroad language programs, many exchange students actively search for opportunities to use the target language but often find it difficult to enter existing host national social networks, particularly if they are staying at an international student dormitory. This paper reports on the experiences of three female foreign exchange students, one Slovakian, one Australian, and the other Indonesian, studying Japanese at a Japanese university, and explains how they created target language social networks in the international dormitories where they were staying. The three participants were asked to keep a language diary for one week, detailing where, with whom, and about what they spoke in Japanese outside the language classroom, ten weeks after they arrived in Japan and entered the dormitory. The participants also completed a short questionnaire and were interviewed in person. Results showed that for these three students the international student dormitories were a target language oasis, providing numerous sustained opportunities for interaction in the target language. The main interlocutors were not only host national (Japanese) students but also other foreign students sharing their dormitories; also, these dormitory-based social networks facilitated the development of language skills and provided significant cultural, emotional, and social support. This research project is in response to the numerous calls for more detailed, qualitative accounts exploring the experiences of exchange students while they are on their sojourn abroad, particularly of under-represented groups such as European and Asian women studying in Japan, and in under-researched spaces such as international dormitories. This is a joint research project with Professor Nanako Machida, Director of the Center for Japanese Studies at Nanzan University. This presentation will be of interest to instructors who teach students who might study abroad in the future, to graduate students researching about the experiences of students studying abroad or in the social networks that language students create outside the language classroom, and to students who are thinking about studying abroad in the future. 


2017  Presentation proposal writing workshop  単独  2018/01/13 
West Tokyo JALT Chapter Meeting  , JALT   

概要(Abstract) The 2018 JALT National Conference will be held in late November in Shizuoka. This month’s workshop will help you prepare your proposal for the conference. The proposal process, the different types of presentations, the evaluation criteria, and ways to write strong proposals are explained, looking at examples of previous successful and unsuccessful submissions. You will have a chance to talk through your proposal ideas with other participants, and to draft a proposal and have feedback from other participants.  


2017  Exchange students creating Japanese language social networks in international dormitories during short-term study abroad in Japan  共同  2017/04/23 
2017 Spring Workshop  , Anthropology of Japan in Japan   



2016  The Ten Steps of Research Design  単独  2017/01/28 
1月研究法研究会  , LEARN    



2016  Using Mixed Methods Approaches to Explore Learners’ Extensive Reading Experiences  単独  2016/10/01 
9th Annual Extensive Reading Seminar  , JALT Extensive Reading SIG   



2016  Short-term Study Abroad Experiences of Japanese University Students in Malaysia  共同  2016/09/10 
9月研究法研究会  , LEARN   



2016  Focus Groups  単独  2016/07/30 
夏集中研究法研究会  , LEARN   



2016  Mixed Methods Research Approaches in English SLA Research  単独  2016/07/20 
文学・語学系列第1回研究例会  , 南山学会   



Name of grant or research classification for scientific research funding
Research Title
Granting body
Grant amount
2008  科学研究費補助金  ボランティア活動でのリーダーシップ経験を通した学習者能力と自信の育成に関する研究 
Co-researcher  日本学術振興会  810,000 

研究内容(Research Content)  

備考(Remarks) 近年、言語学習の分野において、「自主的学習」の重要性についての認識が高まってきている。自主的学習者が教師依存の学習者よりも優れた成果を上げることが数々の研究によって報告されている。しかし、「自主的学習」と「独学」とは同義ではない、という認識は重要である。自ら、自発的に決定した目標を持つ学習者により構成された「学習コミュニティ」は、学習者にとって最も望ましい環境であるといえる。申請者達が行ってきている「学習者の自主性」に関する研究(Heigham:科学研究補助金若手研究B H16-18)から、「自主的学習者コミュニティ」への参加者は、参加していない者と比較して、学習に対するモチベーション、学業成績、他者に対する関心と責任感において、より高い数値を示しているという知見を持つに至った。本研究は、後輩に対する学習指導や地域における英語教授のボランティア活動への参加によって、大学生がどのような影響を受け、どれほどの変化を経験するかを調査研究することで、「自主的学習者コミュニティ」への参加の意義について検証しようとするものである。 

2004  南山大学パッヘ研究奨励金I-A-2  How students should do out-of-class extensive listening and reading in the English language program 
main researcher  Nanzan University   

研究内容(Research Content) Research subsidy 

備考(Remarks) Helped introduce extensive listening into the Nanzan English Program At Seto; wrote one research article; gave two presentations 

2001  南山大学パッヘ研究奨励金I-A  Using the Narrative Mind 
  Nanzan University   

研究内容(Research Content) Research subsidy 

備考(Remarks) Published 2 Papers, edited 1 journal, gave 4 presentations. 

Period of Activities
2012  action research for language teachers 

Meeting with junior and senior high school teachers and university instructors monthly to support their action research projects, organized through Nagoya University of Foreign Studies  

2011  Language Education and Action Research Network (L.E.A.R.N.) 

The purpose of LEARN is to support teachers in the Tokai region to do language research in their own classrooms, principally using qualitative research methods. These workshops are designed to create a supportive environment for such teachers, and to help create a community of teacher-researchers, through a series of workshops and individual consultations. 

Academic Year
No. of Academic Books
No. of Academic Articles in Journals/Int'l Conference Papers
No. of Academic Articles Pub'd in University Bulletins
No. of Academic Awards Received
No. of Times as Guest Speaker at Int'l Academic Conferences
No. of Presentations of Papers at Int'l Academic Conferences
No. of Times as Guest Speaker at National Academic Conf.
No. of Papers Presented at National Academic Conf.

2024/05/24 更新