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2018  Multilingual Societies and Language Policy in Indonesia  未設定  2019/02/04 
School of International Letters and Cultures, Arizona State University   

概要(Abstract) Since its independence, Indonesia has achieved much in terms of promoting and encouraging the spread of its national language. The national language has played a significant role in uniting a diverse number of ethnic groups, each with its own language and culture. In the history of this process governments, both in the Dutch colonial period and after independence, created and implemented language policies for different purposes. Malay in colonial times and Bahasa Indonesia or Indonesian in the independent nation were selected respectively as the communication language and official language of the nation. The language chosen was not that of the colonisers or of the nation’s majority. The other ethnic languages of the archipelago were placed in a subordinate position. As a result, Indonesia has managed to promote the use of a single national language in the years since independence without subjecting the nation to linguistic irresolution and confusion. Interestingly, Indonesia has not become a monolingual society: what has emerged instead is a nation of multilingual peoples.
This paper will briefly consider how multilingual societies were formed in Indonesia over the course of twentieth century, then illustratively turn to explore how language policy has particularly affected the language use of Sundanese society in West Java. It will further be proposed that Indonesia has always been home to a particularly rich and diverse blend of multilingual peoples and cultures – an element which looks very much set to continue into our twenty-first century. Finally, this paper will attempt to outline a possible configuration of languages and societies in the Indonesia of the future. 

備考(Remarks)  

2018  Masyarakat Multilingual dan Kebijakan Bahasa di Indonesia   単独  2018/10/30 
Kongres Bahasa Indonesia XI  , Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa (Agency of Language Development and Construction), Ministry of Education and Culture  , E-Proceedings of the 11th Congress of Language  , Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa (Agency of Language Development and Construction), Ministry of Education and Culture   

概要(Abstract) Dapat dikatakan bahwa Indonesia berhasil untuk mengukuhkan bahasa nasional setelah kemerdekaan dengan suatu kebijakan bahasa. Hal ini bukan hal yang mudah dan wajar tanpa usaha dan perjuangan dengan pemikiran tertentu apabila kita menimbang Indonesia pernah berada di bawah penjajahan lebih dari seratus tahun. Bahasa nasional itu dipilih dan diperjuangkan oleh bangsa baru sampai dijadikan pijakan yang kuat untuk negara merdeka. Bahasa Indonesia menjadi bahasa resmi, bahasa administrasi dan bahasa komunikasi di masyarakat yang majemuk dengan suku bangsa dan etnis. Dapat dikatakan kebijakan bahasa di Indonesia bertujuan untuk menciptakan suatu masyarakat monoglossia. Satu bahasa yang dipilih dan dikembangkan demi keberhasilan solidaritas masyarakat dari segi politik. Dari segi ekonomi bahasa sangat efisien dan efektif apabila negara mempunyai satu bahasa nasional dan administrasi. Baik pemerintahan Orde Lama maupun Orde Baru sama-sama menerapkan kebijakan berbahasa satu tanpa ragu, yaitu Bahasa Indonesialah satu-satunya bahasa untuk digunakan di wilayah Republik Indonesia. Makalah ini pertama-tama mencoba menelusuri keadaan pemakaian bahasa di masyarakat dari zaman Hindia Belanda sampai dengan abad ke-21. Masyarakat Indonesia adalah masyarakat poliglossia, juga masyarakat yang terdiri atas orang-orang multilingual pada setiap zaman, baik zaman Hindia Belanda maupun masa setelah kemerdekaan. Dalam pembahasan ini daerah Jawa Barat yang dihuni oleh orang Sunda diambil sebagai contoh supaya tergambar situasi kebahasaan dari zaman ke zaman. Dengan singkat makalah ini akan membahas bagaimana Indonesia berhasil menciptakan masyarakat multilingual, bukan masyarakat monolingual, tanpa kekacauan. Berdasarkan sejarah kebahasaan ini akan dibahas wujud proporsi bahasa yang lebih baik antara Bahasa Indonesia, bahasa daerah dan bahasa asing untuk abad ke-21. 

備考(Remarks)  

2018  Toko Boekoe dalam Budaya Cetak: Penerbitan buku berbahasa Sunda pada awal abad ke-20 (Colonial Print Culture: Sundanese book publishing in the early twentieth century in the Dutch East Indies)  単独  2018/09/07 
Lokakarya Warisan Budaya Indonesia  , Jurusan Sastra Minangkabau (Department of Minangkabau Literature), Fakultas Ilmu Budaya (Faculty of Cultural Studies), Universitas Andalas   

概要(Abstract) Sundanese books have been printed since 1850 up to the present. Printing and publishing books in Sundanese was initiated by the Dutch colonial government for the sake of management of the colony. Schools and books were prepared to educate the “indigenous people” to supply government local officials. In the early 20th century published books were institutionalized into the Commissie voor de Inlandsche School- en Volkslectuur (Committee for Indigenous School books and Popular Reading Books), a government-subsidized institution that was to provide the growing number of literates in the Indies with “good” and “appropriate” reading materials in 1908. This institution became Balai Poestaka in 1917, and continued to publish in Sundanese and other local languages.
Besides the colonial government’s publishing, some printed books were published locally although the number was not as many as Balai Poestaka’s publication. A small number of toko boekoe or book shops was to print, publish and sell Sundanese books in the early twentieth century in West Java. In this paper, I will focus on the publishing business of a publisher called Toko Boekoe M.I. Prawira-Winata in Bandung. By analyzing it’s activities, I discuss the following aspects of print culture in colonial setting: the way of distributing or selling, right of the author on publication, and growing reading interest and readership. This article attempts to draw another picture of book printing in Sundanese by focusing on the indigenous publishers and a print culture nurtured along with the book publication in the colonial setting, particularly from 1910s to 1920s. However, this article will not discuss the publication of periodicals in that period, which will be discussed in another article. 

備考(Remarks)  

2018  Pemahaman Budaya dalam Pembelajaran Bahasa Indonesia dan Jepang (Understanding culture in learning Indonesian and Japanese languages)  単独  2018/09/06 
Fakultas Ilmu Budaya (Faculty of Cultural Studies), Universitas Andalas   

概要(Abstract)  

備考(Remarks)  

2018  Pengajaran BIPA di Jepang: dari sudut pandang lintas budaya (Issues on Teaching Bahasa Indonesia for Japanese Students from Cross-cultural Perspective)  単独  2018/09/05 
International Seminar on Cultural Literacy in Language, Art, and Literature Education  , Faculty of Languages and Arts, Universitas Negeri Jakarta   

概要(Abstract) Teaching a foreign language demands that considerable attention be paid to the cultural background of its learners. This holds true regarding the teaching of Indonesian to Japanese students in Japan as in the case of BIPA (Bahasa Indonesia untuk Penutur Asing). This paper will explore a number of related issues from a cross-cultural perspective while taking into account the notion of “Internalizing Culture, Intercultural, and Cross-cultural Competences through Language, Art, and Literature Education” under the main theme of this International Seminar on Cultural Literacy in Language, Art, and Literature Education. On the basis of careful observation after teaching Indonesian at various levels and institutions in Japan for nearly 30 years, the following two pre-requisites for successful language learning may be readily discerned: (1) the importance of a thorough understanding of Indonesian culture when Japanese students learn Indonesian as a foreign language (2) the importance of a comprehensive understanding of Japanese culture for Indonesian teachers when teaching Indonesian to Japanese students. It will also be suggested how Indonesian teachers might incorporate these points into their teaching methodology and how the relevance of an instructor’s cross-cultural competence should not be underestimated. At the same time, this paper suggests that learning a language is not only about learning its grammar, phonology and so forth, but also about acquiring the culture of the target language. The teaching and learning of Indonesian should aim to enhance a mutual understanding–and appreciation–of our two different cultures. 

備考(Remarks)  

2018  Pembelajaran Bahasa Melayu di Jepun pada Zaman Awal (Malay Learning in the Early Times in Japan)  単独  2018/05/07 
Fakulti Bahasa dan Komunikasi (Faculty of Language and Communication), Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak, Malaysia   

概要(Abstract) Orang Jepun mula mempelajari Bahasa Melayu pada akhir abad ke-19 . Pada awal abad ke-20 baru dibuka sekolah-sekolah untuk mengajar bahasa Melayu dan buku pelajaran bahasa Melayu pula diterbit. Mulalah sejarah pembelajaran bahasa Melayu dan dilanjutkan bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Malaysia di Jepun.
Tujuan pembelajaran bahasa Melayu berubah-rubah tergantung pada kebutuhan masyarakat atau kebijakan pemerintah Jepun dari masa ke masa. Kebutuhan itu tercermin pada tempat pembelajaran dan jumlah dan kandungan penerbitan buku-buku pelajaran dan kamus-kamus. Dalam makalah ini akan dibagi lima masa, yaitu 1. Permulaan pembelajaran bahasa Melayu; 2. Pembelajaran Bahasa Melayu sebelum selesai perang; 3. Pembelajaran Bahasa Malayu selepas perang; 4. Boom pembelajaran bahasa-bahasa asing; 5. Pembelajaran bahasa-bahasa asing pada abad ke-21.
Setiap masa di atas mempunyai ciri khas masing-masing. Cukup menarik untuk melihat ciri-ciri itu sebagai latar belakang pembelajaran bahasa Melayu. Setiap masa akan ditinjau dari sekolah-sekolah bahasa Melayu, guru-guru bahasa Melayu dan buku-buku pelajaran dan kamusnya. Isi buku pelajaran pun sangat menarik sebab kalimat-kalimat di buku mencerminkan keadaan masyarakat dan tujuan pembelajaran bahasa Melayu.  

備考(Remarks)  

2018  Perkembangan dan Cabaran Masa Hadapan Masyarakat Jepun (Development and Challenge of Japanese Society in the Future)  単独  2018/05/07 
Fakulti Sains Kemanusiaan (Faculty of Human Science), Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak, Malaysia   

概要(Abstract) Japan has experienced a rapid decrease of population. The population of 127 million in 2017 will possibly shrink 30 % to 90 million in 2025. The shape of demography is a small bottom of young people and a large top layer of elderly. A quarter of the population constitutes people of over 65 years and children of under 15 years constitutes a half of elderly in 2017. The main reason of this distorted demography (called Syoushi Koureika in Japanese) has been caused by decreasing of children. The total fertility rate or the average number of babies a woman will bear is 1.44 in 2016 and the number of babies born in the year became less than 1 million for the first time since 1899. Another reason is extending of human life. The Japanese live a longer life because of the progress of medical science and the better living condition.
This rapid demographic change has caused social issues such as decreasing of work force, increasing of social security revenue and reducing the number of schools. Japanese government has tackled these social problems and its effort has had an effect to some extent but still more should be done.
 

備考(Remarks)  

2017  110 tahun pembelajaran Bahasa Melayu di Jepun: suatu sejarah persahabatan antara Malaysia dan Jepun  単独  2017/12/19 
Annual ECoFl Symposium, Issues in Economics, Finance and Banking: Past, Present and Future  , Universiti Utara Malayasia   

概要(Abstract)  

備考(Remarks)  

2017  Penerbitan buku berbahasa Sunda selama100 tahun  単独  2017/10/28 
Lustrum Sundanese Studies  , Faculty of Humanities, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia   

概要(Abstract)  

備考(Remarks)  

2017  Metodologi Penelitian Etnografi  単独  2017/10/27 
Faculty of Humanities, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia   

概要(Abstract)  

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