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2013  The Stereotype Character of Rom 1,18-32 as an Example of Tensions Between Jews and Gentiles in Rome. The Structure and Function of Rom 1, 18-32  単著  issn 2185-3282 
アカデミア  , 南山大学  , 6  , 13-31  , 2013.06   

概要(Abstract) This paper gives attention to Rom 1, 18-32 which presents an argument that the Gentiles, although they are without the Law, are also subject to punishment according to the law. Usually this fragment is considered to be a statement of Paul’s own opinion on the subject. We argue that Rom 1, 18-32 does not present Paul’s opinion concerning the guilt of the Gentiles, but functions as a presentation of a stereotypical Jewish accusation against them.  

備考(Remarks)  

2013  Herod, the King of Judaea. A life of Herod the Great according to writings of Flavious Josephus (37-18 B.C.)  単著  ISSN 0387-3730 
南山神学  , 南山大学人文学部キリスト教学科  , 37  , 29-64  , 2014.03   

概要(Abstract) The writings of the Flavius Josephus (Wars of the Jews; Antiquities of the Jews), are main sources of knowledge concerning the life of Herod the Great. In this paper we analyse the Josephus accounts (A.J.15.1-11; W.J.1.18-22) referring to the period of Herod`s life from the beginning of his reign (37 B.C.) until finishing the basic rebuilding of the Jerusalem Temple (18 B.C.). For analysis, we divided the period it into two parts. The first part (37-30 B.C.) concerns Herod`s straggle to secure his reign on international and domestic level.  

備考(Remarks)  

2012  Places and People in Luke`s Narrative of the Mission Journey of Saul. Socio-Narrative Interpretation of Ac 13-14  単著   
南山神学  , 南山大学  , 36  , 28  , 2013.03   

概要(Abstract) Concerning the mission journey, which was an initiative of the church of Antioch (Ac 13, 2-3), it can be said with a high degree of probability that the primary goal was only Cyprus (Ac 13, 5-6). However, because of the conversion of Sergius Paulus (Ac 13, 12), whose family held property in Pisidian Antioch, the mission plan was extended. This was most probably the reason why Mark left the group (Ac 13, 13). The mission in the region of Pamphilia, to judge from its fruits, must be counted as a success even it came at the cost of great hardship, especially for Paul himself (Ac 14, 5. 19; 2 Tm 3, 11). During the mission Paul and Barnabas addressed the Gospel not only to Jews of the Diaspora (Ac 13, 5) by also to Gentiles (Ac 13, 46-49). In both cases, they had both successes in terms of conversions, and failures in the form of opposition from the Jewish side and misunderstanding on the side of the Gentiles. In many places Christian groups were established which within a few years became quite strong and active (Ac 13, 8-18). It is difficult to be certain about the length of time of the journey . Paul left nothing in writing concerning this mission period. 

備考(Remarks)  

2012  Persona Non Grata? Saul between Damascus and Antioch  単著   
アカデミア  , 南山大学  , 5  , 20  , 2013.01   

概要(Abstract) The article concerns a period of Saul’s life from his conversion at Damascus until the so-called first mission journey of Paul (A.D. 34-44). The period contains four events: life and activities at Damascus; the first visit to Jerusalem after his conversion; his stay in his hometown Tarsus; mission work at Antioch. The purpose of the paper is to stress importance of this period in the development of the personality of the future apostle of the Gentiles. The process took a considerably long time and it contained a wide range of events and experiences. After a presentation of the chronology of the period, attention is given to analysis of each of the events which mostly focus on the relation between Saul after his conversion and the groups of Jesus’ believers.  

備考(Remarks)  

2012  To Save the Unity of the Church or to Create the Unity of Churches? The Purpose of the First Letter to the Corinthian  単著   
アカデミア  , 4  , 13  , 2012.06   

概要(Abstract) The general understanding in current scholarship concerning the purpose of the First Letter to Corinthians is that Paul wrote the letter in order to save the unity of the church at Corinth. This opinion is based on assumption that the church at Corinth was a united church from the time it was established by Paul. After apostle left the city and the community was left without its leader, diversity came to surface. In this study we attempt to show that the purpose of 1 Cor was to create a unity (understood as a harmony) among many household churches at Corinth. First, we argue that the church at Corinth was not one united church at the beginning, but many household churches which only occasionally met together. Next, we examine the text of 1 Cor 1, 10 where the topic of the Letter is presented, and show that Paul is asking for the establishment of a unity that did not yet exist; he is not attempting to protect an existing unity. After the analysis of the text we point out reasons for the diversity in Corinth, both on the socio-political level (1 Cor 1-4) and on the cultural-spiritual level (1 Cor 11-15), which in our opinion prove that these problems were obstacles to the creation of harmony and not a reason for the loss of an existing unity. Finally, Paul’s method of argumentation and persuasion is used as an indicator of the purpose of the letter. With a few exceptions, he avoids invoking authority. Instead he attempts to exhort the many household churches in Corinth towards forming a unity among them.  

備考(Remarks)  

2011  The Apostle Paul and the Obligation of Circumcision. Circumcision as a Mission Problem.  単著  ISSN 2185-3282 
ACADEMIA  , Nanzan University  , 316/3  , pp.99-116  , 2012/1   

概要(Abstract) The custom of circumcision was much older than its function as the sign of the covenant between God and the chosen people. Until now there has been no satisfactory explanation of the roots and primary meaning of the custom.
For Jews circumcision became the sign of the covenant and, after the time of Abraham, the sign of belonging to the chosen nation. In the history of Israel and the history of salvation, circumcision served as a sign of national and religious identity.
Concerning Paul’s attitude toward the custom of circumcision the problem is often analyzed without the necessary distinction being made between the strictly Jewish context and the context of Jewish-gentile relations in a perspective of justification and salvation.
Concerning the strict Jewish contexts of Paul attitude toward the circumcision, it must be stressed that the apostle was himself a circumcised Jew and that he never opposed circumcision as the valued sign of the covenant unless there arose the problems of justification and salvation. In the context of justification, Paul states that circumcision, as the sign of the covenant is not relevant, because no one can fully observe the Law and hence of this everyone must be justified by faith as Abraham was.
Concerning the relation between Jew and gentiles in the perspective of justification and salvation Paul states that it is not circumcision of the body but circumcision of the heart, i.e., faith that matters most. Circumcised Jews as well as non-circumcised gentiles will be justified through faith. In this context circumcision is neither a help nor an obstacle. This is probably the reason why Paul so vigorously opposed some Jewish Christians who taught that circumcision was the necessary way for gentiles to become Christian.
Concerning the account of Paul (Gal) and the account of Luke (Ac), despite the obvious differences in form and purpose of both accounts, there is agreement concerning the problem of circumcision. Paul’s account concerning the problem of circumcision in Gal is placed in an apologetic context. The account of Gal is made by the man who stands directly in the battlefield. The account of Ac is a part of the narrative concerning Paul’s mission among gentiles. Luke places his account concerning the problem of circumcision just before the account of the second mission journey, which (apart from the beginning) was mostly a mission among gentiles. The primary purpose of the account is to attest Paul’s teaching concerning circumcision as the teaching accepted and acknowledged by those who became apostles earlier than Paul.
 

備考(Remarks)  

2011  To be Led by the Spirit of God. Structural Analysis of Rom 8, 1-39  単著  ISSN 0387-3730 
Nanzan Journal of Theological Studies  , Ecclesiastical Faculty of Theology Nanzan University  , 35  , pp.31-57  , 2012/03   

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2011  To Be Christian in a Non-Christian Warld. Paul’s approach to the Slavery Problem in the Letter to Philemon   単著  ISSN 2185-3282 
ACADEMIA  , Nanzan University  , 314/2  , pp.47-69   , 2011/06   

概要(Abstract) In this paper we present the way in which early Christianity challenged the system of slavery, not by legal regulations but by new teaching. The main teaching statement was simple and, at the same time, unthinkable to the citizens of the Roman Empire, i.e. “we all are brothers in Christ”. Paul’s Letter to Philemon shows the Christians’ attempts to overcome a socio-legal regulation concerning the slavery problem by personal relationship based on their faith in Christ. Paul, Philemon and Onesimus were Christians living in a non-Christian world, and in this context the problem of the slave Onesimus, which Paul tries to solve, can be taken as an example of the way that Christianity approached the problem of slavery among its believers. The Christian way of solving the problem of slavery in Phm is restricted only to the Christian group and is not representative of the relations between Christians and non-Christians. This means that the way in which Paul dealt with the problem should not be viewed as a direct challenge of the socio-legal regulation but rather as a call for another, non legislative way, to solve problems between Christians. The proposed way is built on the new relationship called “brothers in Christ”. The new Christian identity should be more important in relations between believers than social status and legal rights.  

備考(Remarks)  

2010  Saul of Tarsus, the Man who became the Apostle Paul,  単著  ISSN 0387−3730 
『南山神学』  , 南山大学  , 34  , 50  , 2011.03   

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2010  Resurrection of the Human Body to Eternal Life – Hope and Experience. A comparative study of 4Q521 and 1 Thess  単著  ISSN 2185−3282 
『アカデミア』  , 南山大学  , 1  , 16  , 2011.01   

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