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2011  The Apostle Paul and the Obligation of Circumcision. Circumcision as a Mission Problem.  単著  ISSN 2185-3282 
ACADEMIA  , Nanzan University  , 316/3  , pp.99-116  , 2012/1   

概要(Abstract) The custom of circumcision was much older than its function as the sign of the covenant between God and the chosen people. Until now there has been no satisfactory explanation of the roots and primary meaning of the custom.
For Jews circumcision became the sign of the covenant and, after the time of Abraham, the sign of belonging to the chosen nation. In the history of Israel and the history of salvation, circumcision served as a sign of national and religious identity.
Concerning Paul’s attitude toward the custom of circumcision the problem is often analyzed without the necessary distinction being made between the strictly Jewish context and the context of Jewish-gentile relations in a perspective of justification and salvation.
Concerning the strict Jewish contexts of Paul attitude toward the circumcision, it must be stressed that the apostle was himself a circumcised Jew and that he never opposed circumcision as the valued sign of the covenant unless there arose the problems of justification and salvation. In the context of justification, Paul states that circumcision, as the sign of the covenant is not relevant, because no one can fully observe the Law and hence of this everyone must be justified by faith as Abraham was.
Concerning the relation between Jew and gentiles in the perspective of justification and salvation Paul states that it is not circumcision of the body but circumcision of the heart, i.e., faith that matters most. Circumcised Jews as well as non-circumcised gentiles will be justified through faith. In this context circumcision is neither a help nor an obstacle. This is probably the reason why Paul so vigorously opposed some Jewish Christians who taught that circumcision was the necessary way for gentiles to become Christian.
Concerning the account of Paul (Gal) and the account of Luke (Ac), despite the obvious differences in form and purpose of both accounts, there is agreement concerning the problem of circumcision. Paul’s account concerning the problem of circumcision in Gal is placed in an apologetic context. The account of Gal is made by the man who stands directly in the battlefield. The account of Ac is a part of the narrative concerning Paul’s mission among gentiles. Luke places his account concerning the problem of circumcision just before the account of the second mission journey, which (apart from the beginning) was mostly a mission among gentiles. The primary purpose of the account is to attest Paul’s teaching concerning circumcision as the teaching accepted and acknowledged by those who became apostles earlier than Paul.
 

備考(Remarks)  

2011  To be Led by the Spirit of God. Structural Analysis of Rom 8, 1-39  単著  ISSN 0387-3730 
Nanzan Journal of Theological Studies  , Ecclesiastical Faculty of Theology Nanzan University  , 35  , pp.31-57  , 2012/03   

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2011  To Be Christian in a Non-Christian Warld. Paul’s approach to the Slavery Problem in the Letter to Philemon   単著  ISSN 2185-3282 
ACADEMIA  , Nanzan University  , 314/2  , pp.47-69   , 2011/06   

概要(Abstract) In this paper we present the way in which early Christianity challenged the system of slavery, not by legal regulations but by new teaching. The main teaching statement was simple and, at the same time, unthinkable to the citizens of the Roman Empire, i.e. “we all are brothers in Christ”. Paul’s Letter to Philemon shows the Christians’ attempts to overcome a socio-legal regulation concerning the slavery problem by personal relationship based on their faith in Christ. Paul, Philemon and Onesimus were Christians living in a non-Christian world, and in this context the problem of the slave Onesimus, which Paul tries to solve, can be taken as an example of the way that Christianity approached the problem of slavery among its believers. The Christian way of solving the problem of slavery in Phm is restricted only to the Christian group and is not representative of the relations between Christians and non-Christians. This means that the way in which Paul dealt with the problem should not be viewed as a direct challenge of the socio-legal regulation but rather as a call for another, non legislative way, to solve problems between Christians. The proposed way is built on the new relationship called “brothers in Christ”. The new Christian identity should be more important in relations between believers than social status and legal rights.  

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2010  Saul of Tarsus, the Man who became the Apostle Paul,  単著  ISSN 0387−3730 
『南山神学』  , 南山大学  , 34  , 50  , 2011.03   

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2010  Resurrection of the Human Body to Eternal Life – Hope and Experience. A comparative study of 4Q521 and 1 Thess  単著  ISSN 2185−3282 
『アカデミア』  , 南山大学  , 1  , 16  , 2011.01   

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2009  Dualism as a Basic Motif of Eschatology – A Comparative Analysis of “The Treatise of the Two Spirits” and 1&2 Thessalonians  単著  ISSN 0387−3730 
『南山神学』  , 南山大学  , 33  , 34  , 2010.03   

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2009  Terminological Dichotomy in the Eschatological Conception of the Letters to the Thessalonians  単著  ISSN 2080−8518 
Biblical Annals  , TN KUL Lublin  , 1 (56)  , 21  , 2009.04   

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2008  Eschatology of 2 Thess. as a Proof in a Polemic Concerning Authenticity of Thessalonians Correspondence  単著  ISSN 0387−3730 
『南山神学』  , 南山大学  , 32  , 26  , 2009.03   

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