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長期研究  The Age-Old Ritual Practice of Ohatsuhoage: Intersection of Identities and Resources 

概要(Abstract) This study focuses on the Kakure Kirishitan survivors found in Nagasaki settings to reconfigure our actual understanding of the salient aspects and effects of their age-old ritual of Ohatsuhoage, using a micro-illustrative analysis. The synthesis suggested that the Ohatsuhoage ceremony constitutes a stable part of Kakure Kirishitan ideology, in which its followers critically take up membership in and identity with communities, which in turn serve as homes of these shared practices. Yet this collective ceremony essentially represents a religious practice that includes rice and sake offering and placatory gifts, prayers (Orasho), body movement, and communal meal sharing. Intriguingly, the potential of this ritually-prepared communal meal lies in its ability to shape participants’ psycho-religious imagination, reinforce their sense of belonging to community and collective memories and emotions, while at the same time grounding their identity formats and adaptation processes. Thus, for Kirishitan minorities, the Ohatsuhoage ceremony and its attendant beliefs continue to be historically deemed important and valuable enough to maintain their communities’ minimal religious and cultural survival in urban settings. In general, therefore, this study provided a refined interpretative tool for understanding how the old-age ritual of Ohatsuhoage has increasingly proven to be a definitive component of the various processes that ultimately enables Kakure Kirishitan survivors to be nurtured and resources by the strands of their long-standing spirituality and religion.  

長期研究  Folk Belief and Traditions of the Supernatiral among the Kakure Kirishitan: Disclosing 'Japanized Catholicism' 

概要(Abstract) This research focuses on aspects of folk belief and traditions of the supernatural experienced by the present-day remnants of Kakure Kirishitan (Hidden Christians) in Nagasaki prefecture in Japan. The aim is to establish a firm basis on which it is justified to speak of a kind of ‘Japanized Catholicism’. Using ethnographic techniques, the results suggest that the Kakure Kirishitan’s religion includes a mixture of rituals, liturgies, symbols, and a few texts developed and adapted, during persecution times by their predecessors, from remnants of 16th century Portuguese Catholicism, often camouflaging them in forms borrowed from the surrounding visible forms of Buddhism and Shinto. Moreover, Kakure Kirishitan communities have re-emerged today in urban contexts as corporate religious minorities whose ongoing struggle is to accomplish transition while retaining continuity with of the past. On the whole, the evidence lends credence to the conclusion that ‘Kakure Kirishitanism’ is not a Japanese folk religion but rather ‘Japanized Catholicism’. Thus, because their religion in particular defines who they are, to change religions, for Kakure Kirishitan individuals, would mean giving up their identity and the support and security that are embodied in it. In general, therefore, it seems that essential elements in the sociological, psycho-religious and spiritual experience of the Kakure Kirishitan constitute their significance in Japan’s socio-religious tradition.

Key words: Kakure Kirishitan, folk belief and traditions, supernatural, religious identity, ‘Japanized Catholicism’
 

長期研究  Kakure Kirishitan in Urban Contexts: An Ethnographic Analysis of the Survival Strategies 

概要(Abstract) The Present-day remnants of Kakure Kirishitan represent a tiny, marginalized minority of the local populace, and their survival is in question. During field investigation, it also became evident that some Kakure Kirishitan communities continue to organize religiously, while others have either disbanded, or have enriched themselves just a little more. So far, however, there has been little discussion about this particular facet of the subject. It is therefore of signal importance that research be conducted to delineate the nature and extent of this issue, and the ways in which religiously committed Kakure Kirishitan communities have attempted to survive in a variety of real world settings.
This article contributes to this inquiry by providing empirical evidence from Nagasaki districts, focusing on some of the specific survival strategies and practices implemented by Kakure Kirishitan communities to address often complex and fluctuating threats they are currently facing. 

長期研究  The Matrilineal Kinship Ideology and Religious Forms Identifying and Preserving Sakata Society 

概要(Abstract) The purpose of this ethnographic research is to offer a contribution to the analysis of the dominant sociological, cultural and religious patterns which actually secure the maintenance and survival of the society of the Basakata in contemporary setting. Initially, I will explore the question of whether the structuring processes by which the matrilineal kinship ideology and religious forms prove equally informative, in regard to their role and interrelationship in the Basakata lands. By using a mixed method approach, I hope to bring these two areas of social life of the Basakata into intelligible relationship in a single analysis. A further component of this analysis entails a narrative analysis of the distinct and apparently influential retention factors and their implications for today. The content of this paper is particularly significant in that there have been few other studies on this particular facet of the subject. 

長期研究  キリシタン神社の歴史と現状ー地域社会の宗教観をめぐってー 

概要(Abstract) 研究の目的と方法

本研究の主目的は、キリシタン神社の歴史と現在的考察への貢献を提供することである。それは具体的には、長崎市の渕町と黒崎町、および五島列島の新上五島町若松におけるキリシタン神社に関する歴史民俗資料学と文化人類学的考察であり、長年培ってきた現地調査と文献調査に基づく貴重な研究成果である。
今回は黒崎町の枯松神社(キリシタン神社)の特性を見出すとともに、かくれキリシタンを含む地域住民との関連性を論述することにある。ここで筆者は、2010年11月3日に行われる第11回枯松神社祭礼の社会組織的な側面に集中することを提議する。そうした点から、簡略にキリシタン神社の倫理と象徴的な側面にも触れることにする。後者は、前研究において深く検討されたものである(Munsi 2008)。
キリシタン神社の現状を観察した結果、地域住民の信仰形態に影響を与える文化的、社会的、宗教的側面が全体としておぼろげなら見えてきた。当該社会の法制度や歴史的・文化的背景に応じて、筆者は、次の考慮すべき属性を置き検討する。

1) キリシタン神社は、どのような文化的関心を表すのか、また、キリシタン神社の大祭礼がそのコミュニティ、あるいはかくれキリシタンのグループにおいて、どのような性格や位置づけを持ち、そしてそのためにどのような形式(構造)を取ってきたのか。
2) キリシタン神社の実態を把握するとともに、近年地域社会的変化の中で、かくれキリシタンがキリシタン神社、あるいはそれの持つ宗教的価値観を、どのように維持し、振舞っているか。 

長期研究  かくれキリシタンの宗教活動とその社会的機能Religious Activities and Related Social Aspects of Kakure Kirishitan in Japan 

概要(Abstract) 歴史的な迫害を受けつつ「キリスト教信者」として信仰を維持するために、外見的には形を変えながらも根幹の信仰の中身は変えることなく時を経てきた「かくれキリシタン」の信仰に興味をもち、彼らが現在に至るまで人類学的にどのような発展を遂げた、また、どのように信仰文化や社会組織を継承していったかを調査し、本研究のテーマとした。従来の「かくれキリシタン」研究は、主に宗教的実践と歴史的な背景に関心を集中してきた。これらの研究においては、いずれも重要な成果をあげている。ただし、そのいずれもが、(現時点に限定せずとりあげた文献は、歴史的な脈絡においても)かくれキリシタン信徒たちの家族構造(の絆)と信仰組織の社会結合を焦点としておらず、文化的・社会的な背景をもつ全体論的な考察への方向性を欠落させている。本研究を通じて、「かくれキリシタン」の組織とその地域文化的な要素間との関係における、人類学的分析のささやかな貢献を願っている。 

短期研究  Kakure Kirishitan in New Settings: Leadership Succession and Group Survival  

概要(Abstract) The purpose of this study is to look into some of the survival strategies the Kakure Kirishitan have implemented in addressing the leadership and group organizational challenges they currently face while safeguarding their religious convictions and creating and sustaining well-functioning communities in contemporary settings. The nature of the two themes generated different approaches, thus making the use of mixed-methods appropriate (Russell 2006). Within the interpretative perspective adopted, the majority of the data presented in this paper emerged from an ethnographic study I carried out at various dates between 2004 and 2013 among four differentially impacted Kakure Kirishitan communities which were active in Kurosaki, Kashiyama, and Wakamatsu districts (Nagasaki). Although there have been a number of studies on the Kakure Kirishitan, the particular sample and context of this study gives it its distinctive character. 

短期研究  コンゴのことばと国家とのインタフェ-ス 

概要(Abstract) 『言葉と国家』という研究対象を取り上げると、コンゴの状態はその一つの重要な事例だと思う。
. 多民族国家
  コンゴは複数の民族を基盤にして国家が成立し、多民族国家という。この民族国家nation‐stateであるコンゴは1960年6月30日にベルギーから政治的独立した。しかし、ここで成立したコンゴの国家は、植民地時代に人為的に引かれた境界をそのまま国境とするなど、植民地時代の遺産によって不合理な要素を含んでおり、民族自決権の確立、民族国家の形成がまだ課題として残されている。
.言語と国家
 コンゴの国家と民族言語の間には次のような関係がある。 (1)多言語が一国内で話されている.(2)一かニ言語が多民族国家で用いられる.たとえばスワヒリ語はザンビア、タンザニア、ケニアなどで公用語とされている。キコンゴ語はコンゴ共和国と、アンゴラなどで公用語とされている。リンガラ語はコンゴ共和国、アンゴラ、中央アフリカ共和国、ガボンなどで公用語とされている。
.言語政策
 国家が言語の統一と規準化などのために施す政策である。言語を支えているのはその言語を母語としている民族である。しかし政治単位であるコンゴの国家と言語の担い手である民族とは必ずしも一致しない。そこでコンゴの国家は統一を維持するために民族言語を規制しようとし、民族はこれに反発する。ここに言語紛争の根源がある。言語政策の内容は、公用語・標準語の制定、文字改革、表記法の変更、「国語」教育など である。以上、コンゴの言語使用状況において、少なくとも規範としてのフランス語の高い社会的地位prestigeが、民族語や国語のそれに比して、劣勢の状況にあることを述べた。この状況を形成する背景要因として、1)コンゴにおける民族語や国語の伝播の歴史ならびにその規範の形成過程、2)しばしば「民族語」や国語使用状況に重要な影響を及ぼすと見做されている母語(Mother Tongue)」教育について、それが現状ではほとんど機能不全に陥っている実情を実例とともに示した。コンゴの言葉と国家の問題を含む、このコンゴをめぐる混乱の最大の原因は、大国による新植民地主義にあるといわれている。 

短期研究  Rice, Sake, and Sashimi for God and Ancestors:Ethnography of ‘Hatsuhô’ among the Kakure Kirishitan 

概要(Abstract) Along with various relics, the ritual ceremony ‘Hatsuho’ is an essential element of the foundation of the Kakure Kirishitan. It merits remarking as well as that throughout the very long history (1873-onwards) of the tiny groups of the Kakure Kirishitan in Nagasaki Prefecture (Japan), it has been thought of as a key factor in identifying and preserving their religious culture and tradition. Central to the entire Hatsuho are Japanese rice, sahshimi and sake. These items are significant in that play a key role in being instruments by which the mediation between the visible and the invisible worlds, and the unity of the congregation of Kakure Kirishitan with God and the ancestors. Traditionally, Hatsuho has subscribed to the belief that it proved and continues to prove an important religious legacy which constitutes an alternative of the Roman Catholic ‘Mass’ in Kakure Kirishitan communities. Several studies into minority groups of Kakure Kirishitan have improved our understanding of their religious practices (Kataoka 1997; Miyazaki 2001; Turnbull 1998), but there is still insufficient data for salient aspects of the ritual ceremony Hatsuho.
This research is designed to offer a contribution to the analysis of sociological, cultural and religious of Hatsuho among the Kakure Kirishitan in Nagasaki prefecture. Interpretativism is advanced as a suitable philosophical framework for the prosecution of the study that offers a methodological rationale for a pragmatic, mixed-methods investigation. The study designs presents a raison d’etre for a phased approach to the work and data are accrued variously from qualtitaive, secondary and archival sources. 

短期研究  Psycho-Religious Dynamics of God, Ancestors and Shamanism in Sakata Land 

概要(Abstract) This study deals with “The Original Religion of the Congo” as experienced in Sakata land. It points out that the Supreme God for the people was the One and Almighty ruler of the Universe. However, for all practical purposes, the local gods and the ancestors, while occupying a position inferior to the God of the universe, were the real objects of religious concern and veneration. The Supreme God was too exalted and too distant to be concerned with the affairs of men.
Sakata shamans thus take up such beliefs to perform rituals which protray the interaction between faith and health in Sakata land.
From the anthropological and psycho-religious point of view, one can argue that:
some of the facts bound up with the awe and wonder that life and deatharoused in the intelligent minds of primitive men. As regards the deity, it is hard to draw conclusions about how He was imagined, but “belief in spiritual beings” might signify “the minimum definition of belief in God.” Animism saw spirits in trees, rocks, rivers, flowers, mountains, clouds and oceans. From animism it was no long step to polytheism. From polytheism, human intelligence discerned the need for some sort of monotheism. Men could not avoid feeling that some being transcends even the universe itself and which is its ground and support, determining the operations of nature and the destinies of men.
However, the natural order with its numerous spirits and gods, made the Supreme Being a very vague and inoperative figure obscured in the mists of animism, polytheism and belief in ancestral influences. 

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