研究者詳細

教職員基本情報
氏名
Name
KUMAI William N. ( クマイ ウィリアム ナオキ , KUMAI,William )
所属
Organization
外国語教育センター外国語教育センター
職名
Academic Title
教授
専攻分野
Area of specialization

Chaos and Complexity Theory, TESOL, computer programming

学会活動
Academic societies

American Physics Society
Phi Beta Kappa
Japan Association for Language Teaching

著書・学術論文数
No. of books/academic articles
総数 total number (49)
著書数 books (0)
学術論文数 articles (49)

出身学校
学校名
Univ.
卒業年月(日)
Date of Graduation
卒業区分
Graduation
   Classification2
University of California, Berkeley理学部物理学 1981年05月  卒業 
University of California, Berkeley理学部応用数学 1981年05月  卒業 
詳細表示
出身大学院
大学院名
Grad. School
修了課程
Courses
   Completed
修了年月(日)
Date of Completion
修了区分
Completion
   Classification
San Francisco State University言語教育研究科TEFL 修士課程  1991年01月  修了 
University of California, Davis工学系研究科応用工学 修士課程  1984年05月  修了 
詳細表示
取得学位
       
学位区分
Degree
   Classification
取得学位名
Degree name
学位論文名
Title of Thesis
学位授与機関
Organization
   Conferring the Degree
取得年月(日)
Date of Acquisition
修士 Master of Arts in TEFL    San Francisco State University  1991年01月 
修士 Master of Science in Applied Engineering    University of California, Davis  1984年05月 
学士 A.B. in Physics    University of California, Berkeley  1981年05月 
学士 A.B. in Applied Mathematics    University of California, Berkeley  1981年05月 
詳細表示
研究経歴
長期研究/短期研究
Long or Short
   Term research
研究課題名
Research Topic
長期研究  Chaos and Complexity Theory 

概要(Abstract) Application of chaos and complexity theory to language teaching with homogeneous L1 populations in order to find conditions of emergent sustained L2 language communities. 

短期研究  Motivation 

概要(Abstract) Exploring ways to motivate L1 homogeneous student populations to learn L2. 

詳細表示
学術論文
年度
Year
論文題目名
Title of the articles
共著区分
Collaboration
   Classification
NeoCILIUS
   請求番号/資料ID
Request No
掲載誌名 Journal name,出版機関名 Publishing organization,巻/号 Vol./no.,頁数 Page nos.,発行年月(日) Date
2023  A Complex Adaptive Systems Analysis of the Dogme ELT Approach  単著   
アカデミア 文学・語学編   , 南山大学  , 115号  , pp. 97-114  , 2024/01   

概要(Abstract) This paper analyzes the Dogme English language teaching approach through a complex adaptive systems (CAS) perspective. The name Dogme derives from a filmmaking movement that deprecated technical wizardry but focused on story and audience; Dogme in language teaching deprecated over-reliance on materials and technology but focused on learners and relevant content. The three core precepts of Dogme are: (1) teaching is conversation-driven, (2) teaching should be materials-light, and (3) teaching focuses on emergent language. Were one to create an ELT approach based on CAS theory from a blank slate, the result would likely be very close to Dogme. CAS theory emphasizes emergent phenomena, which would be L2 for the purposes of this research, and the focus Dogme gives to interactions fosters this emergence. Dogme distributes authority for learning among learners as well as teachers, creating a CAS comprised of learners and teachers. Dogme reduces or eliminates the need for coursebooks for they are seen as hindrances to interactions and information flow necessary for adaptive walks. 

備考(Remarks)  

2022  A Complex Systems Analysis of Active Learning, as Applied to Language Learning  単著   
アカデミア 文学・語学編  , 南山大学  , 113号  , pp. 105-120  , 2023/01/31   

概要(Abstract) An analysis of active learning, in the context of language learning, through the perspective of complexity theory. Active learning is "anything that 'involves students in doing things and and thinking about the things they do.'" The latter part is analogous to emergence in complexity theory. Five characteristics proposed by Bonwell & Eison are analyzed. 

備考(Remarks)  

2021  Complexity Science Analysis of Cooperative Learning and Second Language Development   単著   
アカデミア 文学・語学編   , 南山大学  , 111号  , pp. 179-197  , 2022/01   

概要(Abstract) This paper analyzes cooperative learning, especially as applied to language learning, through complex adaptive systems theory. After a short summary of major concepts from complex adaptive systems theory, especially fitness landscapes and the edge of chaos, five elements of cooperative learning are analyzed, namely, positive interdependence, individual accountability,
face-to-face promotive interaction, social skills, and group processing. Then, following Jacobs and McCafferty, eight language learning theories and concepts are applied to cooperative learning, and analyzed with complex adaptive systems theory: input hypothesis, interaction hypothesis, output hypothesis, sociocultural theory, content-based instruction, individual differences, learner autonomy, and affective factors. Finally, Kagan structures of structuring student interactions in cooperative learning activities are analyzed: Inside-Outside Circle, Numbered Heads Together, Showdown, Telephone, and Timed Pair Share. Exploration of the fitness landscape figures prominently in the analyses. 

備考(Remarks)  

2020  Edge of Chaos in Language Teaching  単著   
アカデミア 文学・語学編   , 南山大学  , 109号  , pp. 145-161  , 2021/01   

概要(Abstract) The edge of chaos is a concept taken from complexity theory. Most complex systems exhibit an orderly phase and a chaotic phase; the edge of chaos is a phase that lies in between. In measuring adaptability to changes both internal and external along a scale from orderly to chaotic, complex systems reach a peak at the edge of chaos. In the case of language classes, the changes of interest come in the form of L2 usage. Furthermore, L2 usage becomes better, or fitter, because at the edge of chaos systems exhibit optimal peak climbing on what is known as fitness landscapes, which are multidimensional maps of the average fitness (L2 competence for a particular context) of each configuration a system can take. The paper shows how these concepts connect with major ideas in second language teaching. Four characteristics of language learning activities related to or that facilitate the edge of chaos are introduced, sources of order, sources of disorder, fitness peak climbing, and indicators of the edge of chaos. Ten activities exhibiting sustained L2 communication are analyzed through these characteristics.  

備考(Remarks)  

2020  Adaptive Walks and Fitness Peak Climbing: Language Learning as Inducing Adaptive Change in L2 Systems  単著   
Nagoya JALT Journal  , Nagoya JALT  , 1巻/1号  , pp. 29-42  , 2020   

概要(Abstract) This paper adopts the perspective of students, groups, and entire classes as being complex adaptive systems, or CAS. Two important concepts from complexity theory, adaptive walks and fitness landscapes, can be used to create optimal language learning conditions for producing changes in students’ L2 systems. Every configuration of L2 traits a student might have can be assigned a fitness value, that is, an L2 competence level. The set of all such values creates an abstract landscape, the fitness landscape. By changing traits, the position on the landscape changes, meaning a student can take a journey on the landscape, known as an adaptive walk, in the search for higher peaks, that is, higher competence. The goal becomes establishing conditions in which adaptive walks are encouraged. Several L2 activities are introduced as applications of these ideas. 

備考(Remarks) 査読付き 

2019  Complexity Science Analysis of Social Cultural Theory in Second Language Development with Focus on van Compernolle  単著   
アカデミア 文学・語学編   , 南山大学  , 107号  , pp. 161-174  , 2020/01/31   

概要(Abstract) Using complexity theory, this paper analyzes the ideas put forth by van Compernolle (2015) on applying Vygotsky to second language development, establishing a physical basis for Social Cultural Theory (SCT). SCT posits L2 can mediate L2 learning through using L2 as the means of social interaction, not only communication. An instructor-student pair can enter the Zone of Proximal Development, where through minimal guidance the student can be led to using better L2; from the complexity science perspective, this is a co-adaptation to the edge of chaos, a regime between orderly and chaotic behavior of a complex adaptive system (CAS). Minimal guidance can also lead students to explore what is known as a fitness landscape, the set of fitness values of every state a CAS can exist in. The exploration can draw in various interactional competencies that help in the development of L2 usage. Further, feedback sensitivity, also a chief CAS characteristic, becomes important for the instructor to determine when to give guidance and for the student to pick up instructional clues, not necessarily verbal. This paper goes through van Compernolle (2015) in chapter order, showing how each section has connections with complexity theory concepts.  

備考(Remarks)  

2018  A Complex Adaptive Systems Analysis of Krashen's SLA Theory   単著   
アカデミア 文学・語学編  , 南山大学  , 105号  , pp. 41-54  , 2019/01   

概要(Abstract) Krashen's second language acquisition theory (Krashen, 1982) has five hypotheses: the acquisition-learning hypothesis, the natural order hypothesis, the monitor hypothesis, the input hypothesis, and the affective filter hypothesis. This paper analyzes each of these hypotheses through the perspective of complex adaptive systems (CAS) theory. All hypotheses are found to be amenable to this type of analysis. Key to this analysis are the concepts of fitness landscape, interconnected networks, and edge of chaos. 

備考(Remarks)  

2017  Audiolingual Method vs. Communicative Language Teaching from the Perspective of Complexity Theory  未設定   
南山大学短期大学部紀要 終利号  , 南山大学短期大学部  , 39号  , pp. 131-146  , 2018/03/19   

概要(Abstract) Complexity theory is used to analyze both the Audiolingual Method and Communicative Language Teaching. Communicative Language Teaching is a better fit to complex adaptive systems. 

備考(Remarks)  

2016  Unmotivated Students and the Prisoner's Dilemma in English Conversation Classes  単著   
アカデミア 文学・語学編  , 南山大学  , 101号  , pp. 157-168  , 2017/01   

概要(Abstract) The Prisoner's Dilemma from game theory is shown to be a useful analytical tool when analyzing and improving English conversation classes with unmotivated students.  

備考(Remarks)  

2015  Comparing the FFCF Model (1999) with Larsen-Freeman and Cameron (2008): Updating Edge of Chaos Heuristics Framework, Freedom, Comparative Encounters, and Feedback  単著   
アカデミア 文学・語学編   , 南山大学  , 99号  , pp. 163-172  , 2016/01   

概要(Abstract) This paper compares the Framework-Freedom-Comparative encounters-Feedback sensitivity method of activity design, or FFCF, first proposed in 1999, with an overview of complex systems and applied linguistics published nearly a decade later in 2008 by Larsen-Freeman and Cameron. 

備考(Remarks)  

詳細表示
研究発表
年度
Year
題目又はセッション名
Title or Name of Session
細目
Authorship
発表年月(日)
Date
発表学会等名称 Name, etc. of the conference at which the presentation is to be given, 主催者名称 Organizer, 掲載雑誌名等 Publishing Magazine,発行所 Publisher,巻/号 Vol./no.,頁数 Page nos.
2023  Emoting, Persuading, Debating, Hunting: Participatory Performance in Education Activities  単独  2024/03/16 
PIE SIG Winter Zoom My Activity Conference  , JALT Performance in Education Special Interest Group   

概要(Abstract) This presentation describes four activities that use performance to accomplish their goals. The first is “What’s My Emotion?” where paired students try to guess which emotion is being used in reading aloud a short student-created passage. Students are asked to alternately use L1 and L2 so they may notice how they express emotions in those languages. The second is a persuasion speech activity, with the twist that topics should be unpopular with the speaker’s classmates. Objections are collected via survey and speakers should prepare rebuttals. Listeners evaluate the speakers on small scraps of paper. The third is a form of debate called “Crossfire” which eschews traditional policy debate jargon and employs a more conversational mode. The fourth is a job hunting simulation, where students can learn from their classmates what interview techniques are successful. At the end of the activity, the students will have seen the interview techniques of two-thirds of the class. 

備考(Remarks)  

2019  The Edge of Chaos in Language Teaching  単独  2019/11/2 
JALT2019: Teacher Efficacy, Learner Agency  , The Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT)   

概要(Abstract) Complexity theory shows that emergent phenomenon occur most when a system is poised at the edge of chaos. Applied to language teaching, a group of students would be the complex system and L2 would be the emergent phenomenon. Several activities that take students to the edge of chaos are introduced. 

備考(Remarks)  

2010  Two Paradigms in Language Teaching: Cognitive vs. Sociocultural  単独  2010/07/03 
Nanzan Junior College Foreign Language Research Center  , Nanzan Junior College   

概要(Abstract) Comparing cognitive theories with sociocultural theories in language teaching; sociocultural theories are based on Vygotsky. 

備考(Remarks) Nanzan Junior College 

2006  Aspects of Being Japanese American  単独  2006/05/13 
Nanzan Junior College Foreign Language Research Center  , Nanzan Junior College   

概要(Abstract) History of Japanese Americans along with personal experiences. 

備考(Remarks) Nanzan Junior College 

2000  Taming the Wild Fitness Landscape  共同  2000/11/05 
26th JALT National Conference  , JALT   

概要(Abstract) Fitness landscape explanation and application to language learning and teaching. 

備考(Remarks) Shizuoka City Granship, Shizuoka 

1999  Harnessing Group Dynamics in the L2 Classroom: Toward a Complex Adaptive Systems Theory of Language Learning  単独  1999/04/10 
Nanzan Junior College Foreign Language Research Center  , Nanzan Junior College   

概要(Abstract) Theory of complex adaptive systems, and its application to the analysis of group activities in the classroom. Four example activities are presented: Borrowing Competition, Fishbowl, Guided Conversation Test, and Human Tape Recorders. 

備考(Remarks) Nanzan Junior College 

1998  The Language Classroom on a Complex Systems Matrix  共同  1998/11/23 
24th JALT National Conference  , JALT   

概要(Abstract) Complex systems exhibit only a few fundamental types of behavior: a matrix was presented as a way to classify classroom activities. 

備考(Remarks) Sonic City, Omiya 

1997  Learning at the Edge of Chaos: Complexity in EFL  共同  1997/10/12 
23rd JALT National Conference  , JALT   

概要(Abstract) Outline of complexity theory and its possible applications to language learning: a videotape of the Fisthbowl activity is used to exemplify the ideas. 

備考(Remarks) Act City, Hamamatsu 

1997  The Teaching of Comparative Cultures  単独  1997/01 
JALT Toyohashi Regional Chapter Meeting  , JALT   

概要(Abstract) Method and theory of teaching a comparative cultures class to learners of English. 

備考(Remarks) 高師家庭館、豊橋市 

1995  Computer-Aided Writing: The Good and the Bad  単独  1995/07/23-24 
35th LLA National Conference  , LLA   

概要(Abstract) The merits and demerits in using computers when teaching English composition. 

備考(Remarks) Chukyo University 

詳細表示
教育活動
年度
Year
タイトル
Title
内容等
Content
活動期間
Period of Activities
2023  Discussion Skills - New Class 

Designed activities and materials for new Discussion Skills class, including topics such as Lyrics, University Education, Advertising, Children's Stories, Poverty, Poetry, Japanese Culture, Photographs, Debate, and Panel Discussion. 

2023/04/06-2023/07/20 
2022  Communication Skills - Retooling to individual accountability 

The second year communication skills class displayed problems with regular attendance, meaning the group work projects planned would have to be retooled toward individual projects or one class hour projects. For example, a multi-class television commercial project was compressed to one class hour. 

2022/11/21-2023/01/23 
2021  Communication Skills - Minimalist Poster Session lesson 

Developed group/individual poster session using only paper and pencil; poster developed by groups but presented individually. Themes tied to students’ majors. 

2021/12/15〜2021/12/19 
2020  Communication Skills/ZOOM 

Developed and adapted lessons for ZOOM classes. 

2020/04/01~2021/01/31 
2019  Communication Skills 

Designed and taught a year-long communication skills class based on complex adaptive systems principles. 

2019/04/01~2020/01/31 
2018  Communication Skills 

Designed a reading/speaking course around Reader's Digest (reading magazine for native speakers). 

2018/09/17~2019/01/24 
2017  GLS 英語IVオーラルコミュニケーション 

Helped design interclass debate. 

2017/ Q4 
2016  Discussion in English P4 

Almost every week students were introduced to eight English song lyrics and discussed them in groups (along with a weekly English article related to Core subjects chosen by student groups). Each song had eight discussion questions that students answered and summarized on paper. 

2013/04/01~2017/03/31 
2018  Interaction in English 

Redesigned course for lower level junior college students. 

2018/04/09~2018/05/30 
2016  Presentation in English S5, other classes, Betania 

Created a worksheet for English pronunciation practice. Students are introduced to the English sound system (vowels & consonants) along with the associated IPA symbols. The final exercise on the worksheet is a minimal pair activity where students can try their pronunciation and listening skills 

2013/04/01~2017/03/31 
詳細表示
研究活動/社会的活動
年度
Year
活動名称
Name of activities
活動期間
Period of Activities
2023  南山大学キリスト教センター青年のためのキリスト教入門   2023/11/30-2024/03/02 

活動内容等(Content of Activities) スタッフ 

2023  第6回全国英語オーラルインタープリテーションフェスティバル  2023/07/09 

活動内容等(Content of Activities) 講評者 

2023  南山大学キリスト教センター青年のためのキリスト教入門   2023/05/18~2023/07/20 

活動内容等(Content of Activities) スタッフ 

2022  第5回 全国英語オーラルインタープリテーションフェスティバル  2022/12/17 

活動内容等(Content of Activities) 講評員  

2022  南山大学キリスト教センター青年のためのキリスト教入門   2022/04/01~2023/03/31 

活動内容等(Content of Activities) スタッフ 

2021  第4回英語オーラルインタープリテーションフェスティバル  2021/12/18 

活動内容等(Content of Activities) 講評員 

2021  南山大学キリスト教センター青年のためのキリスト教入門   2021/11/25〜2022/02/10 

活動内容等(Content of Activities) スタッフ 

2020  第3回英語オーラルインタープリテーションフェスティバル  2020/12/19 

活動内容等(Content of Activities) 講評員、6組中学校から大学から集めましたオーラルインタープリテーションフェスティバルフェスティバル(英米科) 

2019  南山大学キリスト教センター青年のためのキリスト教入門  2019/5/9~2019/12/12 

活動内容等(Content of Activities) スタッフ 

2019  第2回英語オーラルインタープリテーションフェスティバル  2019/12/15 

活動内容等(Content of Activities) 講評員、11組中学校から大学から集めましたオーラルインタープリテーションフェスティバルフェスティバル(英米科) 

詳細表示
著書・学術論文に関する統計情報
年度
Academic Year
学術研究著書の件数
No. of Academic Books
学会誌・国際会議議事録等に掲載された学術論文の件数
No. of Academic Articles in Journals/Int'l Conference Papers
学内的な紀要等に掲載された学術論文の件数
No. of Academic Articles Pub'd in University Bulletins
学会受賞等の受賞件数
No. of Academic Awards Received
国際学会でのゲストスピーカーの件数
No. of Times as Guest Speaker at Int'l Academic Conferences
国際学会での研究発表の件数
No. of Presentations of Papers at Int'l Academic Conferences
国内学会でのゲストスピーカーの件数
No. of Times as Guest Speaker at National Academic Conf.
国内学会での研究発表の件数
No. of Papers Presented at National Academic Conf.
2023 
2022 
2021 
2020 
2019 
2018 
2017 
2016 
2015 
2014 
詳細表示

2024/03/10 更新